Functional core-shell mesoporous microspheres with integrated functions, controlled structure, and surface properties and morphologies have received increasing attention due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Herein, core-shell magnetic mesoporous materials with cauliflower-like morphology and tunable surface roughness have been synthesized through a kinetics-controlled interface co-assembly and deposition of mesostructured nanocomposites on Fe3O4@RF microspheres (RF refers to resorcinol formaldehyde resin). The obtained microspheres, synthesized via this interface nanoengineering method, possess well-defined sandwich structure with a tunable rough morphology, uniform size (560-1000 nm), perpendicularly aligned mesopores (∼5.7 nm) in the outer shell, RF-protected magnetic responsive core, high surface area up to 382 m2/g, and large pore volume of 0.66 cm3/g. As a result of the unique surface features and magnetic properties, these microspheres exhibit excellent performance in stabilizing and oxygen-free manipulating aqueous solutions in petroleum ether by a magnetic field. They also exhibit superior cell uptake properties compared with traditional smooth core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres, opening up the possible applications in fast drug delivery in cancer therapy.