Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer: The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles

Li Jeen Mah, Stephanie Tortorella, Tom C. Karagiannis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Otherpeer-review

Abstract

The rapidly evolving and expanding discipline of nanotechnology, coupled with the continuous advancements in the understanding of cancer biology is a highly promising basis for cancer therapeutic research. Current clinical management strategies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy fail to adequately treat malignancies in a subset of patients with advanced or severe forms of cancer. Multivariable dose-limiting factors, such as systemic toxicity and multi-drug resistance limit therapeutic benefit, quality of life, and complete long-term remission rates. The ability to deliver therapeutic compounds to the tumour site is thus an attractive area of research, with nanoparticle systems exhibiting the most promise. Formulation of a nanoparticle drug delivery platform that possesses the ideal properties for effective cancer-targeting requires the optimisation and characterisation of different materials at the nano-scale. Despite advancements, translation of this system to become clinically-relevant has proven to be difficult, with only six anticancer nanoparticle drug delivery systems FDA-approved. Numerous formulations are currently in clinical trials, demonstrating the theoretical relevance and potential in cancer treatment. The ability to modulate the surface chemistry of nanoparticles with relative ease provides rationale for their use in targeting strategies. Rapid clearance of untargeted nanoparticles also demonstrates the requirement to functionalise drug carriers in order to increase their time in systemic circulation, and enhance drug bioavailability. Cancer targeting strategies involve both passive and active mechanisms. The tumour microenvironment possesses distinct characteristics as compared to normal tissue, which may be exploited for passive targeting. Utilisation of knowledge at the molecular level, including distinct differences in gene transcription and the expression of receptors between cancer and normal cells, allows for the active targeting of malignancies. Through the conjugation of a relevant moiety to the nanoparticle surface, cancer cells with an upregulation of the corresponding receptor exhibit high binding affinities allowing for cellular uptake, and subsequent drug release. Further research is required for such systems to become clinically-relevant; however with continued advancements in both nanoparticles theory and the understanding of cancer biology, the limitations observed in current management strategies may be overcome.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease
Subtitle of host publicationImplications for Epigenetics and Health
EditorsNilanjana  Maulik, Tom  Karagiannis
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherSpringer
Pages471-501
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)9781493907069
ISBN (Print)9781493907052
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cancer therapy
  • Drug-delivery
  • Liposomal drug carrier
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles
  • Polymeric nanoparticles
  • Solid-lipid nanoparticles

Cite this

Mah, L. J., Tortorella, S., & Karagiannis, T. C. (2014). Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer: The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles. In N. Maulik, & T. Karagiannis (Eds.), Molecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health (pp. 471-501). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0706-9_18
Mah, Li Jeen ; Tortorella, Stephanie ; Karagiannis, Tom C. / Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer : The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles. Molecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health. editor / Nilanjana  Maulik ; Tom  Karagiannis . New York : Springer, 2014. pp. 471-501
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Mah, LJ, Tortorella, S & Karagiannis, TC 2014, Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer: The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles. in N Maulik & T Karagiannis (eds), Molecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health. Springer, New York, pp. 471-501. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0706-9_18

Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer : The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles. / Mah, Li Jeen; Tortorella, Stephanie; Karagiannis, Tom C.

Molecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health. ed. / Nilanjana  Maulik; Tom  Karagiannis . New York : Springer, 2014. p. 471-501.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Otherpeer-review

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Mah LJ, Tortorella S, Karagiannis TC. Nano-based drug delivery modalities for the treatment of cancer: The formulation of tumour-specific and-targeted nanoparticles. In Maulik N, Karagiannis T, editors, Molecular Mechanisms and Physiology of Disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health. New York: Springer. 2014. p. 471-501 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0706-9_18