NaGdF 4 nanoparticle-based molecular probes for magnetic resonance imaging of intraperitoneal tumor xenografts in vivo

Yi Hou, Ruirui Qiao, Fang Fang, Xuxia Wang, Chengyan Dong, Kan Liu, Chunyan Liu, Zhaofei Liu, Hao Lei, Fan Wang, Mingyuan Gao

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200 Citations (Scopus)


Differently sized NaGdF 4 nanocrystals with narrow particle size distributions were synthesized by a high temperature approach. Upon ligand exchange, the as-prepared hydrophobic NaGdF 4 nanocrystals were transferred into water by using asymmetric PEGs simultaneously bearing phosphate and maleimide groups. Further investigations demonstrated that the water-soluble NaGdF 4 nanocrystals, coated by PEG bearing two phosphate groups on the same side, exhibit not only excellent colloidal stability in water and PBS buffer, but also higher T1 relaxivity than Gd-DTPA (Magnevist). Through "click" reaction between the maleimide residue on particle surface and thiol group from the partly reduced anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb), NaGdF 4 -PEG-mAb nanoprobes were constructed, and their biocompatibility and binding specificity were evaluated through in vitro experiments. A series of in vivo experiments were then carried out for detecting intraperitoneal tumor xenografts in nude mice by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique. The results revealed that the NaGdF 4 -PEG-mAb probes possessed satisfying tumor-specific targeting ability and strong MR contrast enhancement effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • intraperitoneal tumor xenografts
  • ligand exchange
  • MR molecular imaging probe
  • NaGdF nanoparticles
  • T1 contrast agent

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