Mechanisms underlying the renal pathology in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 2 remain elusive. We hypothesised that renal glutathione deficiency is central to the development of CRS type 2. Glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC;40 mg/kg/day; 8 weeks) or saline were administered to transgenic mice with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and wild-type (WT) controls. Cardiac structure, function and glutathione levels were assessed at the end of this protocol. Renal fibrosis, glutathione content, expression of inflammatory and fibrotic markers, and function were also evaluated. In both genotypes, NAC had minimal effect on cardiac glutathione, structure and function (P ≥ 0.20). In NAC treated DCM mice, loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), tubulointerstitial and glomerular fibrosis and renal oxidised glutathione levels were attenuated by 38%, 99%, 70% and 52% respectively, compared to saline treated DCM mice (P ≤ 0.01). Renal expression of PAI-1 was greater in saline treated DCM mice than in WT mice (P < 0.05). Renal PAI-1 expression was less in NAC treated DCM mice than in vehicle treated DCM mice (P = 0.03). Renal IL-10 expression was greater in the former cohort compared to the latter (P < 0.01). These data indicate that normalisation of renal oxidized glutathione levels attenuates PAI-1 expression and renal inflammation preventing loss of GFR in experimental DCM.
- preclinical research