The amino acid substitutions in the mutant c-subunits of Escherichia coli F1F0-ATPase coded for by the uncE429, uncE408 and uncE463 alleles affect the incorporation of these proteins into the cell membrane. The DNA sequence of the uncE429 allele differed from normal in that a G leads to A base change occurred at nucleotide 68 of the uncE gene, resulting in glycine being replaced by aspartic acid at position 23 in the c-subunit. The uncE408 and uncE463 mutant DNA sequences were identical and differed from normal in that a C leads to T base change occurred at nucleotide 91 of the uncE gene, resulting in leucine being replaced by phenylalanine at position 31 in the c-subunit. An increased gene dosage of the uncE408 or uncE463 alleles resulted in the incorporation into the membranes of the mutant c-subunits. The results are discussed in terms of the 'Helical Hairpin Hypothesis' of Engelman & Steitz [(1981) Cell 23,411-422].