We describe a novel autosomal recessive form of mitochondrial disease in a child with short stature, poor weight gain, and mild dysmorphic features with highly suspected Fanconi anemia due to a mutation in COX4I1 gene. Whole Exome Sequencing was performed then followed by Sanger confirmation, identified a K101N mutation in COX4I1, segregating with the disease. This nuclear gene encodes the common isoform of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit 4 (COX 4-1), an integral regulatory part of COX (respiratory chain complex IV) the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patient's fibroblasts disclosed decreased COX activity, impaired ATP production, elevated ROS production, decreased expression of COX4I1 mRNA and undetectable (COX4) protein. COX activity and ATP production were restored by lentiviral transfection with the wild-Type gene. Our results demonstrate the first human mutation in the COX4I1 gene linked to diseases and confirm its role in the pathogenesis. Thus COX4I1 mutations should be considered in any patient with features suggestive of this diagnosis.