Musical obsessions: A comprehensive review of neglected clinical phenomena

Mark Steven Taylor, Dean McKay, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Maria Alice de Mathis, Chittaranjan Andrade, Niraj Ahuja, Debbie Sookman, Jun Soo Kwon, Min Jung Huh, Bradley C. Riemann, Jean Cottraux, Kieron O'Connor, Lisa R. Hale, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Leonardo F. Fontenelle, Eric A. Storch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Intrusive musical imagery (IMI) consists of involuntarily recalled, short, looping fragments of melodies. Musical obsessions are distressing, impairing forms of IMI that merit investigation in their own right and, more generally, research into these phenomena may broaden our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is phenomenologically and etiologically heterogeneous. We present the first comprehensive review of musical obsessions, based on the largest set of case descriptions ever assembled ( N= 96). Characteristics of musical obsessions are described and compared with normal IMI, musical hallucinations, and visual obsessional imagery. Assessment, differential diagnosis, comorbidity, etiologic hypotheses, and treatments are described. Musical obsessions may be under-diagnosed because they are not adequately assessed by current measures of OCD. Musical obsessions have been misdiagnosed as psychotic phenomena, which has led to ineffective treatment. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment. Musical obsessions may respond to treatments that are not recommended for prototypic OCD symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)580-589
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Anxiety Disorders
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Earworms
  • Intrusive musical imagery
  • Involuntary musical imagery
  • Musical obsessions
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Orhwurms

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