Muscarinic receptors stimulate AC2 by novel phosphorylation sites, whereas G-beta-gamma subunits exert opposing effects depending on the G-protein source

Jia Xiao Shen, Sebastian Wachten, Michelle Louise Halls, Katy L Everett, Dermot M F Cooper

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Direct phosphorylation of AC2 (adenylyl cyclase 2) by PKC (protein kinase C) affords an opportunity for AC2 to integrate signals from non-canonical pathways to produce the second messenger, cyclic AMP. The present study shows that stimulation of AC2 by pharmacological activation of PKC or muscarinic receptor activation is primarily the result of phosphorylation of Ser 490 and Ser 543, as opposed to the previously proposed Thr 1057. A double phosphorylation-deficient mutant (S490/543A) of AC2 was insensitive to PMA (phorbol myristic acid) and CCh (carbachol) stimulation, whereas a double phosphomimetic mutant (S490/543D) mimicked the activity of PKC-activated AC2. Putative GI?I?-interacting sites are in the immediate environment of these PKC phosphorylation sites (Ser 490 and Ser 543) that are located within the C1b domain of AC2, suggesting a significant regulatory importance of this domain. Consequently, we examined the effect of both G q-coupled muscarinic and Gicoupled somatostatin receptors. Employing pharmacological and FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)-based real-time single cell imaging approaches, we found that GI?I? released from the G q-coupled muscarinic receptor or G i-coupled somatostatin receptors exert inhibitory or stimulatory effects respectively. These results underline the sophisticated regulatory capacities of AC2, in not only being subject to regulation by PKC, but also and in an opposite manner to GI?I? subunits, depending on their source.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393 - 405
Number of pages13
JournalBiochemical Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

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