Multivalent approaches and beyond: novel tools for the investigation of dopamine D2 receptor pharmacology

Anitha Kopinathan, Peter J. Scammells, J. Robert Lane, Ben Capuano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has been implicated in the symptomology of disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Multivalent ligands provide useful tools to investigate emerging concepts of G protein-coupled receptor drug action such as allostery, bitopic binding and receptor dimerization. This review focuses on the approaches taken toward the development of multivalent ligands for the D2R recently and highlights the challenges associated with each approach, their utility in probing D2R function and approaches to develop new D2R-targeting drugs. Furthermore, we extend our discussion to the possibility of designing multitarget ligands. The insights gained from such studies may provide the basis for improved therapeutic targeting of the D2R.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1349-1372
Number of pages24
JournalFuture Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • allosteric
  • bitopic
  • bivalent
  • DR
  • designed multiple ligands
  • dopamine D receptor
  • multivalent
  • orthosteric

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