B-cell memory describes the populations of cells that provide long-term humoral immunity: long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells that reside mainly in the bone marrow and memory B cells. Interestingly, the memory B-cell population is heterogenous, although the importance of this heterogeneity has been unclear. Recent studies have investigated the formation and function of memory in different settings. In particular, T-independent memory-like cells and T-dependent (TD) IgM memory B cells qualitatively differ from canonical TD class-switched memory B cells; however, these studies suggest that IgM memory cells preserve the memory population over long periods of time. These subsets are evocative of the evolution of the humoral immune response, with memory-like cells appearing before acquisition of germinal centers, suggesting that there are multiple pathways to producing B-cell memory.