With the advances in multimedia and the world wide web, users upload millions of images and videos everyone on social networking platforms on the Internet. From the perspective of automatic human behavior understanding, it is of interest to analyze and model the affects that are exhibited by groups of people who are participating in social events in these images. However, the analysis of the affect that is expressed by multiple people is challenging due to the varied indoor and outdoor settings. Recently, a few interesting works have investigated face-based group-level emotion recognition (GER). In this paper, we propose a multimodal framework for enhancing the affective analysis ability of GER in challenging environments. Specifically, for encoding a person's information in a group-level image, we first propose an information aggregation method for generating feature descriptions of face, upper body, and scene. Later, we revisit localized multiple kernel learning for fusing face, upper body, and scene information for GER against challenging environments. Intensive experiments are performed on two challenging group-level emotion databases (HAPPEI and GAFF) to investigate the roles of the face, upper body, scene information, and the multimodal framework. Experimental results demonstrate that the multimodal framework achieves promising performance for GER.
- Facial expression recognition
- Feature descriptor
- Group-level emotion recognition
- Information aggregation