Multigroup invariance of measure for angry drivers (MAD) scale using a representative sample of drivers in Australia

Amanda N. Stephens, Rachel Crotty, Steven Trawley, Jennifer Oxley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Introduction: Driver anger and aggression have been linked to crash involvement and injury outcomes. Improved road safety outcomes may be achieved through understanding the causes of driver anger, and interventions designed to reduce this anger or prevent it from becoming aggression. Scales to measure anger propensities will be an important tool in this work. The measure for angry drivers (MAD; Stephens et al., 2019) is a contemporary scale designed to measure tendencies for anger across three types of driving scenarios: perceived danger from others, travel delays, and hostility or aggression from other drivers. Method: This study aimed to validate MAD using a representative sample of Australian drivers, stratified across age, gender, and location. Participants completed a 10-minute online survey that included MAD, sought demographic information (age, gender, driving purpose, crash history), as well as the frequency of aggressive driving. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) assessed how stable the structure of the MAD was across drivers of different ages, gender, purposes for driving and those who do or do not display anger aggressively. MAD was invariant across all groups, showing that all drivers interpreted and responded to MAD in the same way. Results: A comparison of latent means showed anger tendencies were higher for men compared to women, for younger drivers compared to older drivers, and for those who drive mainly for work compared to those who mainly drive for other reasons. When controlling for driver factors, driving anger was associated with increased odds of being aggressive while driving. Practical Applications: Overall, this study demonstrated that MAD is an appropriate scale to measure anger tendencies and can be used to support interventions, and evaluation of interventions, to reduce anger and aggressive driving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-215
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Safety Research
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2024


  • Aggressive driving
  • Driver anger
  • MAD
  • Measure for angry driving
  • Road safety

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