Pulsed multi-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at X-, Q- and W-Band (9.7, 34, and 94 GHz) was applied to investigate paramagnetic centers in microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells under illumination. The EDMR spectra are decomposed into resonances of conduction band tail states (e states) and phosphorus donor states (P states) from the amorphous layer and localized states near the conduction band (CE states) in the microcrystalline layer. The e resonance has a symmetric profile at all three frequencies, whereas the CE resonance reveals an asymmetry especially at W-band. This is suggested to be due to a size distribution of Si crystallites in the microcrystalline material. A gain in spectral resolution for the e and CE resonances at high fields and frequencies demonstrates the advantages of high-field EDMR for investigating devices of disordered Si. The microwave frequency independence of the EDMR spectra indicates that a spin-dependent process independent of thermal spin-polarization is responsible for the EDMR signals observed at X-, Q- and W-band.
- Electrically detected magnetic resonance
- Electron spin resonance
- Microcrystalline silicon
- Multi-frequency EDMR
- Solar cells