Moving solitons in a one-dimensional fermionic superfluid

Dmitry Kirillovich Efimkin, Victor Mikhaylovich Galitskiy

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Abstract

A fully analytical theory of a traveling soliton in a one-dimensional fermionic superfluid is developed within the framework of time-dependent self-consistent Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations, which are solved exactly in the Andreev approximation. The soliton manifests itself in a kinklike profile of the superconducting order parameter and hosts a pair of Andreev bound states in its core. They adjust to the soliton's motion and play an important role in its stabilization. A phase jump across the soliton and its energy decrease with the soliton's velocity and vanish at the critical velocity, corresponding to the Landau criterion, where the soliton starts emitting quasiparticles and becomes unstable. The “inertial” and “gravitational” masses of the soliton are calculated and the former is shown to be orders of magnitude larger than the latter. This results in a slow motion of the soliton in a harmonic trap, reminiscent of the observed behavior of a solitonlike texture in related experiments in cold fermion gases [T. Yefsah et al., Nature (London) 499, 426 (2013)]. Furthermore, we calculate the full nonlinear dispersion relation of the soliton and solve the classical equations of motion in a trap. The strong nonlinearity at high velocities gives rise to anharmonic oscillatory motion of the soliton. A careful analysis of this anharmonicity may provide a means to experimentally measure the nonlinear soliton spectrum in superfluids
Original languageEnglish
Article number023616
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPhysical Review A
Volume91
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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