Legionella pneumophila is an accidental respiratory pathogen of humans that provokes a robust inflammatory response upon infection. While most people exposed to L. pneumophila will clear the infection, certain groups with underlying susceptibility will develop Legionnaires' disease. Mice, like most humans, are inherently resistant to L. pneumophila and infection of most inbred strains reflects the response of immune competent people to L. pneumophila exposure. Hence, the use of mouse models of L. pneumophila infection has taught us a great deal about the innate and adaptive factors that lead to successful clearance of the pathogen and avoidance of Legionnaires' disease. At the same time, L. pneumophila has provided new insight into innate immunity in general and is now a model pathogen with which to study acute lung inflammation and inflammasome activation. This chapter will explore the history and use of the mouse model of L. pneumophila infection and examine what we know about the innate and adaptive factors that contribute to the control of L. pneumophila in the mouse lung.