Motor learning with augmented feedback: modality-dependent behavioral and neural consequences

Renaud Ronsse, Veerle Puttemans, James Peter Coxon, Daniel J Goble, Johan P Wagemans, Nicole Wenderoth, Stephan P Swinnen

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99 Citations (Scopus)


Sensory information is critical to correct performance errors online during the execution of complex tasks and can be complemented by augmented feedback (FB). Here, 2 groups of participants acquired a new bimanual coordination pattern under different augmented FB conditions: 1) visual input reflecting coordination between the 2 hands and 2) auditory pacing integrating the timing of both hands into a single temporal structure. Behavioral findings revealed that the visual group became dependent on this augmented FB for performance, whereas the auditory group performed equally well with or without augmented FB by the end of practice. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results corroborated these behavioral findings: the visual group showed neural activity increases in sensory-specific areas during practice, supporting increased reliance on augmented FB. Conversely, the auditory group showed a neural activity decrease, specifically in areas associated with cognitive/sensory monitoring of motor task performance, supporting the development of a control mode that was less reliant on augmented FB sources. Finally, some remnants of brain activity in sensory-specific areas in the absence of augmented FB were found for the visual group only, illustrating ongoing reliance on these areas. These findings provide the first neural account for the guidance hypothesis of information FB, extensively supported by behavioral research
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1283 - 1294
Number of pages12
JournalCerebral Cortex
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

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