Morphology of OLED Film Stacks Containing Solution-Processed Phosphorescent Dendrimers

Jake A. McEwan, Andrew J. Clulow, Andrew Nelson, Ross D. Jansen-Van Vuuren, Paul L. Burn, Ian R. Gentle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Organic light-emitting devices containing solution-processed emissive dendrimers can be highly efficient. The most efficient devices contain a blend of the light-emitting dendrimer in a host and one or more charge-transporting layers. Using neutron reflectometry measurements with in situ photoluminescence, we have investigated the structure of the as-formed film as well as the changes in film structure and dendrimer emission under thermal stress. It was found that the as-formed film stacks comprising poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate/host:dendrimer/1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (where the host was deuterated 4,4′-N,N′-di(carbazolyl)biphenyl or tris(4-carbazol-9-ylphenyl)amine, the host:dendrimer layer was solution-processed, and the 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene evaporated) had well-defined interfaces, indicating good wetting of each of the layers by the subsequently deposited layer. Upon thermal annealing, there was no change in the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate/host:dendrimer interface, but once the temperature reached above the Tg of the host:dendrimer layer, it became a supercooled liquid into which 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene dissolved. When the film stacks were held at a temperature just above the onset of the diffusion process, they underwent an initial relatively fast diffusion process before reaching a quasi-stable state at that temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3848-3855
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • diffusion
  • light-emitting dendrimer
  • neutron reflectometry
  • organic light-emitting diode
  • photoluminescence

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