Morbidity and utilisation of healthcare services among people with cardiometabolic disease in three diverse regions of rural India

Sojib Bin Zaman, Roger G. Evans, Clara K. Chow, Rohina Joshi, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Brian Oldenburg, Ajay S. Mahal, Kartik Kalyanram, Kamakshi Kartik, Michaela A. Riddell, Oduru Suresh, Nihal Thomas, Gomathyamma K. Mini, Pallab K. Maulik, Velandai K. Srikanth, Amanda G. Thrift

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Objectives: To assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiometabolic disease (CMD), and the factors associated with healthcare utilisation, among people with CMD. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 11,657 participants were recruited from randomly selected villages in 3 regions located in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh from 2014 to 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with CMD and healthcare utilisation (public or private). Results: Thirty-four per cent (n = 3629) of participants reported having ≥1 CMD, including hypertension (21.6%), diabetes (11.6%), heart disease (5.0%) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1.6%). The prevalence of CMD was progressively greater in regions of greater socio-economic position (SEP), ranging from 19.1% to 40.9%. Among those with CMD 41% had sought any medical advice in the last month, with only 19% utilising public health facilities. Among people with CMD, those with health insurance utilised more healthcare (age-gender adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.31 (1.13, 1.51)) as did those who reported accessing private rather than public health services (1.43 (1.23, 1.66)). Discussion: The prevalence of CMD is high in these regions of rural India and is positively associated with indices of SEP. The utilisation of outpatient health services, particularly public services, among those with CMD is low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)873-888
Number of pages16
JournalChronic Illness
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Cardiometabolic diseases
  • health insurance
  • healthcare disparities
  • India
  • private facilities

Cite this