Monotreme glucagon-like peptide-1 in venom and gut: one gene - two very different functions

Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Chuan He, Mark A Myers, Sof Andrikopoulos, Nicole Wong, Patrick M Sexton, Denise Wootten, Briony E. Forbes, Frank Grutzner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The importance of Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for metabolic control and insulin release sparked the evolution of genes mimicking GLP-1 action in venomous species (e.g. Exendin-4 in Heloderma suspectum (gila monster)). We discovered that platypus and echidna express a single GLP-1 peptide in both intestine and venom. Specific changes in GLP-1 of monotreme mammals result in resistance to DPP-4 cleavage which is also observed in the GLP-1 like Exendin-4 expressed in Heloderma venom. Remarkably we discovered that monotremes evolved an alternative mechanism to degrade GLP-1. We also show that monotreme GLP-1 stimulates insulin release in cultured rodent islets, but surprisingly shows low receptor affinity and bias toward Erk signaling. We propose that these changes in monotreme GLP-1 are the result of conflicting function of this peptide in metabolic control and venom. This evolutionary path is fundamentally different from the generally accepted idea that conflicting functions in a single gene favour duplication and diversification, as is the case for Exendin-4 in gila monster. This provides novel insight into the remarkably different metabolic control mechanism and venom function in monotremes and an unique example of how different selective pressures act upon a single gene in the absence of gene duplication.

Original languageEnglish
Article number37744
Number of pages12
JournalScientific Reports
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Nov 2016

Cite this

Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal ; He, Chuan ; Myers, Mark A ; Andrikopoulos, Sof ; Wong, Nicole ; Sexton, Patrick M ; Wootten, Denise ; Forbes, Briony E. ; Grutzner, Frank. / Monotreme glucagon-like peptide-1 in venom and gut : one gene - two very different functions. In: Scientific Reports. 2016 ; Vol. 6.
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abstract = "The importance of Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for metabolic control and insulin release sparked the evolution of genes mimicking GLP-1 action in venomous species (e.g. Exendin-4 in Heloderma suspectum (gila monster)). We discovered that platypus and echidna express a single GLP-1 peptide in both intestine and venom. Specific changes in GLP-1 of monotreme mammals result in resistance to DPP-4 cleavage which is also observed in the GLP-1 like Exendin-4 expressed in Heloderma venom. Remarkably we discovered that monotremes evolved an alternative mechanism to degrade GLP-1. We also show that monotreme GLP-1 stimulates insulin release in cultured rodent islets, but surprisingly shows low receptor affinity and bias toward Erk signaling. We propose that these changes in monotreme GLP-1 are the result of conflicting function of this peptide in metabolic control and venom. This evolutionary path is fundamentally different from the generally accepted idea that conflicting functions in a single gene favour duplication and diversification, as is the case for Exendin-4 in gila monster. This provides novel insight into the remarkably different metabolic control mechanism and venom function in monotremes and an unique example of how different selective pressures act upon a single gene in the absence of gene duplication.",
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Monotreme glucagon-like peptide-1 in venom and gut : one gene - two very different functions. / Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; He, Chuan; Myers, Mark A; Andrikopoulos, Sof; Wong, Nicole; Sexton, Patrick M; Wootten, Denise; Forbes, Briony E.; Grutzner, Frank.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, 37744, 29.11.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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