Formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues of three Malaysian farm pigs naturally infected with Nipah virus were used to investigate the value of anti-Nipah virus mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and rabbit polyclonal antibody for immunohistochemical diagnosis. Mabs 11F6 and 12A5 gave intense immunolabelling in lung tissue that had been fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for about 4 years, whereas the reactivity of Mabs 13A5 and 18C4 and polyclonal antibody was reduced significantly by long-term formalin fixation. Immunohistochemical examination of Malaysian farm pig samples with Mab 11F6 confirmed the affinity of Nipah virus for respiratory epithelium, renal glomerular and tubular epithelium, meningeal arachnoidal cells, and systemic vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. In addition, Nipah virus antigens were identified in laryngeal epithelial cells, Schwann cells of peripheral nerve fascicles in the spleen, and endothelial cells in the atrioventricular valve. The study demonstrated the value of Mabs 11F6 and 12A5 for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of Nipah virus infection in pigs.
- Nipah virus
- Viral infection