Monitoring osseointegration process using vibration analysis

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Osseointegration implant has attracted significant attention as an alternative treatment for transfemoral amputees. It has been shown to improve patients’ sitting and walking comfort and control of the artificial limb, compared to the conventional socket device. However, the patients treated with osseointegration implants require a long rehabilitation period to establish sufficient femur–implant connection, allowing the full body weight on the prosthesis stem. Hence, a robust assessment method on the osseointegration process is essential to shorten the rehabilitation period and identify the degree of osseointegration prior to the connection of an artificial limb. This paper investigates the capability of a vibration-related index (E-index) on detecting the degree of simulated osseointegration process with three lengths of the residual femur (152, 190 and 228 mm). The adhesive epoxy with a setting time of 5 min was applied at the femur–implant interface to represent the stiffness change during the osseointegration process. The cross-spectrum and colormap of the normalised magnitude demonstrated significant changes during the cure time, showing that application of these plots could improve the accuracy of the currently available diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, the E-index exhibited a clear trend with a noticeable average increase of 53% against the cure time for all three residual length conditions. These findings highlight that the E-index can be employed as a quantitative justification to assess the degree of osseointegration process without selecting and tracing the resonant frequency based on the geometry of the residual femur.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6727
Number of pages16
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • E-index
  • osseointegration implant
  • structural health monitoring
  • vibrational analysis

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