Lipids are now widely considered to play a variety of important roles in T-cell mediated immunity, including serving as antigens. Lipid-based antigens are presented by a specialised group of glycoproteins termed CD1. In humans, three classes of CD1 molecules exist: group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c), group 2 (CD1d), and group 3 (CD1e). While CD1d-mediated T-cell immunity has been extensively investigated, we have only recently gained insights into the structure and function of group 1 CD1 molecules. Structural studies have revealed how lipid-based antigens are presented by group 1 CD1 molecules, as well as shedding light on the molecular requirements for T-cell recognition. Here, we provide an overview of our current understanding of lipid presentation by group 1 CD1 molecules in humans and their recognition by T-cells, as well as examining the potential differences in lipid presentation that may occur across different species.
- CD1 glycoproteins
- CD1-mediated T-cell immunity
- Lipid-based antigen presentation
- MHC-like molecules
- T-cell receptor recognition