Molecular determinants for the stereospecific reduction of 3-ketosteroids and reactivity towards all-trans-retinal of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (DHRS4)

Satoshi Endo, Satoshi Maeda, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Urmi Dhagat, Ossama El-Kabbani, Nobutada Tanaka, Kazuo T Nakamura, Kazuo Tajima, Akira Hara

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Abstract

DHRS4, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, reduces all-trans-retinal and xenobiotic carbonyl compounds. Human DHRS4 differs from other animal enzymes in kinetic constants for the substrates, particularly in its low reactivity to retinoids. We have found that pig, rabbit and clog DHRS4s reduce benzil and 3-ketosteroids into S-benzoin and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids, respectively, in contrast to the stereoselectivity of human DHRS4 which produces R-benzoin and 3 beta-hydroxysteroids. Among substrate-binding residues predicted from the crystal structure of pig DHRS4, F158 and L161 in the animal DHRS4 are serine and phenylalanine, respectively, in the human enzyme. Double mutation (F158S/L161F) of pig DHRS4 led to an effective switch of its substrate affinity and stereochemistry into those similar to human DHRS4. The roles of the two residues in determining the stereospecificity in 3-ketosteroid reduction were confirmed by reverse mutation (S158F/F161L) in the human enzyme. The stereochemical control was evaluated by comparison of the 3D models of pig wild-type and mutant DHRS4s with the modeled substrates. Additional mutation of T177N into the human S158F/F161L mutant resulted in almost complete kinetic conversion into a pig DHRS4-type form, suggesting a role of N177 in forming the substrate-binding cavity through an intersubunit interaction in pig and other animal DHRS4s, and explaining why the human enzyme shows low reactivity towards retinoids. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183 - 190
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Volume481
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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