Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Resistant Starch as a Treatment of Chronic Kidney Diseases: Evidence of Efficacy and Mechanistic Insights

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Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits. However, there is a lack of mechanistic insight into how these metabolites can positively influence renal health. Emerging evidence shows that microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the incretin axis and mitigate inflammation via expansion of regulatory T cells. Studies from animal models and patients with CKD show that RS supplementation attenuates the concentrations of uremic retention solutes, including indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Here, we present the current state of knowledge linking the microbiome to CKD, we explore the efficacy of RS in animal models of CKD and in humans with the condition, and we discuss how RS supplementation could be a promising dietary approach for slowing CKD progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)303-320
Number of pages18
JournalAdvances in Nutrition
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • high-amylose maize starch
  • microbiome
  • microbiota
  • resistant starch
  • short-chain fatty acids
  • uremic retention solutes

Cite this

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title = "Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Resistant Starch as a Treatment of Chronic Kidney Diseases: Evidence of Efficacy and Mechanistic Insights",
abstract = "Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or {"}dysbiosis,{"} which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits. However, there is a lack of mechanistic insight into how these metabolites can positively influence renal health. Emerging evidence shows that microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the incretin axis and mitigate inflammation via expansion of regulatory T cells. Studies from animal models and patients with CKD show that RS supplementation attenuates the concentrations of uremic retention solutes, including indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Here, we present the current state of knowledge linking the microbiome to CKD, we explore the efficacy of RS in animal models of CKD and in humans with the condition, and we discuss how RS supplementation could be a promising dietary approach for slowing CKD progression.",
keywords = "chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, high-amylose maize starch, microbiome, microbiota, resistant starch, short-chain fatty acids, uremic retention solutes",
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T2 - Evidence of Efficacy and Mechanistic Insights

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AU - Kellow, Nicole Jane

AU - Coughlan, Melinda

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N2 - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits. However, there is a lack of mechanistic insight into how these metabolites can positively influence renal health. Emerging evidence shows that microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the incretin axis and mitigate inflammation via expansion of regulatory T cells. Studies from animal models and patients with CKD show that RS supplementation attenuates the concentrations of uremic retention solutes, including indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Here, we present the current state of knowledge linking the microbiome to CKD, we explore the efficacy of RS in animal models of CKD and in humans with the condition, and we discuss how RS supplementation could be a promising dietary approach for slowing CKD progression.

AB - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits. However, there is a lack of mechanistic insight into how these metabolites can positively influence renal health. Emerging evidence shows that microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the incretin axis and mitigate inflammation via expansion of regulatory T cells. Studies from animal models and patients with CKD show that RS supplementation attenuates the concentrations of uremic retention solutes, including indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Here, we present the current state of knowledge linking the microbiome to CKD, we explore the efficacy of RS in animal models of CKD and in humans with the condition, and we discuss how RS supplementation could be a promising dietary approach for slowing CKD progression.

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KW - diabetic nephropathy

KW - high-amylose maize starch

KW - microbiome

KW - microbiota

KW - resistant starch

KW - short-chain fatty acids

KW - uremic retention solutes

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