and acts as a decoy receptor in the RANK-RANKL signaling system (Fig. 8). In conclusion, osteoblasts/stromal cells are involved in all of the processes of osteoclast development, such as differentiation, survival, fusion, and activation of osteoclasts (Fig. 8). Osteoblasts/stromal cells can now be replaced with RANKL and M-CSF in dealing with the whole life of osteoclasts. RANKL, RANK, and OPG are three key molecules that regulate osteoclast recruitment and function. Further studies on these key molecules will elucidate the molecular mechanism of the regulation of osteoclastic bone resorption. This line of studies will establish new ways to treat several metabolic bone diseases caused by abnormal osteoclast recruitment and functions such as osteopetrosis, osteoporosis, metastatic bone disease, Paget's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone disease.