Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes are refractory to flavivirus infections, but the role of lipids in Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking remains to be elucidated. Here, we use liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to provide a comprehensive picture of the lipidome of Aedes aegypti (Aag2) cells infected with Wolbachia only, either dengue or Zika virus only, and Wolbachia-infected Aag2 cells superinfected with either dengue or Zika virus. This approach identifies a class of lipids, acyl-carnitines, as being down-regulated during Wolbachia infection. Furthermore, treatment with an acyl-carnitine inhibitor assigns a crucial role for acyl-carnitines in the replication of dengue and Zika viruses. In contrast, depletion of acyl-carnitines increases Wolbachia density while addition of commercially available acyl-carnitines impairs Wolbachia production. Finally, we show an increase in flavivirus infection of Wolbachia-infected cells with the addition of acyl-carnitines. This study uncovers a previously unknown role for acyl-carnitines in this tripartite interaction that suggests an important and broad mechanism that underpins Wolbachia-mediated pathogen blocking.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 29 Sep 2020|