Models for projecting the impacts of ETR

Terry Barker, Christian Lutz, Bernd Meyer, Hector Pollitt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The chapter describes the main modelling tools, E3ME and GINFORS, which were used to provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of ETR, and sets out the models' underlying assumptions and simplifications that play a large role in determining the magnitude and direction of the models' results. The chapter also identifies areas in which the models' results are likely to differ, particularly with regard to the intended impacts of ETR, and considers how the treatment of revenues from environmental taxes and charges affects the results of modelling ETRs. The detailed application of the models to ETR is then described, outlining the lines of causality between such variables as energy prices, energy demand, output of different industrial sectors, real incomes, and household expenditure, without quantifying the results, but identifying the likely direction of the different impacts and potential indirect effects.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnvironmental Tax Reform (ETR)
Subtitle of host publicationA Policy for Green Growth
PublisherOxford University Press, USA
ISBN (Electronic)9780191725012
ISBN (Print)9780199584505
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Causality
  • Energy demand
  • Energy prices
  • Environmental taxes
  • ETR
  • Household expenditure
  • Revenues

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