The cellular adaptive immune response plays a key role in resolving influenza infection. Experiments where individuals are successively infected with different strains within a short timeframe provide insight into the underlying viral dynamics and the role of a cross-reactive immune response in resolving an acute infection. We construct a mathematical model of within-host influenza viral dynamics including three possible factors which determine the strength of the cross-reactive cellular adaptive immune response: the initial naive T cell number, the avidity of the interaction between T cells and the epitopes presented by infected cells, and the epitope abundance per infected cell. Our model explains the experimentally observed shortening of a second infection when cross-reactivity is present, and shows that memory in the cellular adaptive immune response is necessary to protect against a second infection.
- Cytotoxic T lymphocyte
- Mathematical model
- Viral dynamics
Yan, A. W. C., Cao, P., Heffernan, J. M., McVernon, J., Quinn, K. M., La Gruta, N. L., Laurie, K. L., & McCaw, J. M. (2017). Modelling cross-reactivity and memory in the cellular adaptive immune response to influenza infection in the host. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 413, 34-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.11.008