Modeling the urea-actuated osmotic pressure response of urease-loaded hydrogel for osmotic urea biosensor

K. B. Goh, Hua Li, K. Y. Lam

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8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the urea-actuated osmotic pressure response of urease-loaded hydrogel in salt solution, possibly initiating the development of osmotic urea sensor. Herein, a multiphysics model is formulated to elucidate effects of urea concentration on the osmotic pressure of urease-loaded hydrogel by incorporating bio-electrochemical interactions between environmental urea-rich salt solution and functional groups within the hydrogel. The model is directly validated by comparison with published experimental data, where it can capture well the pH- and temperature-induced responsive behaviors of urease-loaded hydrogel. The result shows that the osmotic pressure response of urease-loaded hydrogel enlarges linearly by increasing physiological urea concentration, making it biocompatible for healthcare diagnostic applications. Therefore, the urease-loaded hydrogel is capable of converting bio-electrochemical energy into mechanical one in response to urea-rich biological fluid, demonstrating its potential as a material platform to develop—for the first time—an osmotic urea biosensor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-474
Number of pages10
JournalSensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioelectrochemistry
  • Biosensor
  • Immobilized urease
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Urea-sensitive hydrogel

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