Modeling attitude ambivalence and behavioral outcomes from hotel reviews

Naeem Akhtar, Umar Iqbal Siddiqi, Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar, Muhammad Usman, Wasim Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aims to offer a conceptual framework that elaborates on how tourists’ perception of contradictory features in reviews’ factuality and comprehension – within a single hotel review and across multiple hotel reviews – trigger attitude ambivalence and psychological discomfort, which determine their behaviors – choice deferral and hotel booking intentions. It also investigates the moderating role of anticipated conflicting reactions (ACRs) through contradictory features on consumers’ attitude ambivalence. Design/methodology/approach: Using a Chinese setting, researchers collected data from 524 inbound tourists who were the consumers of hotels in Beijing. The study used IBM Amos 23.0 to test measurement and structural models for the proposed relationships. It also used PROCESS macro 3.4 for the moderation analysis. Findings: The findings reveal a positive association between contradictory features in reviews and the resulting ambivalence that affects consumers’ discomfort and leads to the decision to defer the choice of hotel. Conversely, consumers’ discomfort has a positive impact on the hotel booking intentions. ACRs have positive moderating effects on the associations between contradictory features and consumers’ attitude ambivalence. Originality/value: By investigating the contradictory features in hotel reviews, this study extends the body of research on dual information processing (i.e. the heuristic–systematic model) and the literature on service management, psychological behaviors, travel intermediaries and hotel firms. Future research directions are recommended for tourism and hospitality researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2831-2855
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Anticipated conflicting reactions
  • Attitude ambivalence
  • Choice deferral
  • Hotel booking intention
  • Hotel review
  • Psychological discomfort

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