Modal frequencies associations with musculoskeletal components of human legs for extracorporeal bone healing assessment based on a vibration analysis approach

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Reliable and quantitative assessments of bone quality and fracture healing prompt well-optimised patient healthcare management and earlier surgical intervention prior to complications of nonunion and malunion. This study presents a clinical investigation on modal frequencies associations with musculoskeletal components of human legs by using a prototype device based on a vibration analysis method. The findings indicated that the first out-of-plane and coupled modes in the frequency range from 60 to 110 Hz are associated with the femur length, suggesting these modes are suitable quantitative measures for bone evaluation. Furthermore, higher-order modes are shown to be associated with the muscle and fat mass of the leg. In addition, mathematical models are formulated via a stepwise regression approach to determine the modal frequencies using the measured leg components as variables. The optimal models of the first modes consist of only femur length as the independent variable and explain approximately 43% of the variation of the modal frequencies. The subsequent findings provide insights for further development on utilising vibration-based methods for practical bone and fracture healing monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number670
Number of pages18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jan 2022


  • Biomechanics
  • Bone assessment
  • Fracture healing
  • Human health monitoring
  • Medical device
  • Modal frequency
  • Vibration analysis

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