Mitral valve replacement via a right mini-thoracotomy in the dog: Use of carbon dioxide to reduce intracardiac air

William S. Peters, Julian A. Smith, Arthur Preovolos, Marc Rabinov, Mark R. Buckland, Franklin L. Rosenfeldt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To develop a clinically applicable method of minimally invasive mitral valve replacement (MVR) with cardioplegia, and examine the ability of carbon dioxide (CO2) to improve de-airing. Methods: MVR was performed via a 5 x 3-cm right lateral minithoracotomy in eight greyhounds. Peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass and an ascending aortic balloon catheter (endoaortic clamp) were used for cardioplegia and aortic root venting. The endoaortic clamp was inflated in the ascending aorta under fluoroscopy and cardioplegic solution was infused. In four dogs, CO2 at 2 l/min was used to displace air in the chest. A left atriotomy was made, the valve exposed and a mechanical valve implanted. After left atrial closure, retained intracardiac gas was aspirated from the aortic root and collected in a bubble-trap. The endoclamp was deflated and the animal weaned from bypass. Results: A satisfactory MVR was performed in all cases. The clamp time was 64 ± 13 min and all dogs were stable post-bypass. In the CO2 group, intrathoracic CO2 was maintained above 86% and 0.1 ± 0.1 ml of gas was collected, compared to 1.3 ± 0.8 ml in the non-CO2 group (P <0.05). Conclusions: Femoro-femoral bypass and use of the endoaortic clamp allow a safe and efficacious MVR via a right minithoracotomy in the dog. A high intrathoracic CO2 concentration reduces the amount of retained intracardiac gas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1067-1073
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Femoral bypass
  • Minimally invasive
  • MVR

Cite this