Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into several distinct cell types, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. The balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation is disrupted in several osteogenic-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. So far, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that drive final lineage commitment of MSCs. In this study, we revealed that miR-17-5p and miR-106a have dual functions in the modulation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) commitment by gain- and loss-of-function assays. They could promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis. Luciferase reporter assay, western blot and ELISA suggested BMP2 was a direct target of miR-17-5p and miR-106a. Downregulation of endogeneous BMP2 by RNA interference suppressed osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis, similar to the effect of miR-17-5p and miR-106a upregulation. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of miR-17-5p on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hADSCs could be reversed by BMP2 RNA interference. In conclusion, miR-17-5p and miR-106a regulate osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment of hADSCs by directly targeting BMP2, and subsequently decreased osteogenic TAZ, MSX2 and Runx2, and increased adipogenic C/EBPα and PPARγ.