Microscopic colitis is an umbrella term used to include two idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorders that present with chronic watery diarrhea, normal endoscopic findings and characteristic inflammatory changes on histology. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are distinguished by the presence of a thickened subepithelial collagen table. It is likely that they are a spectrum of one disease, but this is yet to be proven. The majority of cases tend to undergo spontaneous remission within a few years of onset, and their clinical course is benign, with no increase in risk of colorectal cancer. Sufficient evidence exists to suggest that microscopic colitis occurs as a response to one or more luminal antigens. A variety of medications have been reported in the treatment of this condition, but only colloidal bismuth and budesonide have thus far been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials.