Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: Current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability

George S. Stergiou, Gianfranco Parati, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Apostolos Achimastos, Emanouel Andreadis, Roland P Asmar, Alberto P Avolio, Athanase Benetos, Grzegorz Bilo, Nadia Boubouchairopoulou, Pierre Boutouyrie, Paolo Castiglioni, Alejandro De La Sierra, Eamon Dolan, Geoffrey Head, Yutaka Imai, Kazuomi Kario, Anastasios Kollias, Vasilis Kotsis, Efstathios ManiosRichard McManus, Thomas Mengden, Anastasia Susie Mihailidou, Martin G Myers Jr, Teemu Niiranen, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Stefano Omboni, Paul Padfield, Paolo Palatini, Theodore Papaioannou, Athanasios Protogerou, Josep Redon, Paolo Verdecchia, Jiguang Wang, Alberto Zanchetti, Giuseppe Mancia, Eoin O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

120 Citations (Scopus)


Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1665-1677
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • ambulatory blood pressure
  • aortic blood pressure
  • blood pressure variability
  • brachial blood pressure
  • central blood pressure
  • clinic blood pressure
  • measurement
  • monitoring
  • peripheral blood pressure
  • self-measurement

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