Methodological challenges in epidemiological studies

Jenni Ilomaki, Anna Maija Tolppanen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEncyclopaedia / Dictionary EntryOtherpeer-review


Designing an observational epidemiological study is a challenging task. It requires detailed consideration of aspects such as measurement and definition of exposure and outcome variables, potential confounding variables, biological plausibility of the studied association, or causality. These aspects, together with data availability, impact the choice of applied study design. This chapter gives an overview of these aspects, with a focus on medication use as the exposure variable.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy
EditorsZaheer-Ud-Din Babar
PublisherElsevier - Mosby
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780128127353
ISBN (Print)9780128127360
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Bias
  • Case-control study
  • Causality
  • Cohort study
  • Confounding
  • Data source
  • Epidemiological methods
  • Epidemiology
  • Exposure
  • Outcome
  • Self-controlled study

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