Background: Methamphetamine abuse is a growing public health problem, and increasing numbers of patients are admitted with methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MAC). Aim: We sought to characterise the patterns of this disease and identify predictors of recovery. Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients diagnosed with MAC between January 2006 and July 2015. Results: We identified 20 patients (14 males, 6 females) with mean age 35±9years. Most had very severe systolic dysfunction (mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 19.7±11.4%) at presentation with 14 requiring inotropes and 5 requiring mechanical support. The pattern of systolic dysfunction was global in 14 patients, while 6 patients had a 'reverse Takotsubo' (RT) pattern with severely hypokinetic basal-mid segments and apical preservation. RT patients were predominantly female, had a short history of methamphetamine abuse and had higher cardiac enzyme levels. Patients with global dysfunction tended to have mid-wall fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. On follow-up transthoracic echocardiography, 6 out of 19 (32%) had normalisation of LVEF (LVEF ≥ 50%) within 6weeks. Smaller left ventricular and left atrial size, shorter duration of methamphetamine use and RT pattern appeared to predict early recovery. Conclusion: A subset of MAC patients, particularly those with a RT pattern and lesser ventricular dilatation have the potential for early recovery of ventricular function. By contrast, those with evidence of myocardial fibrosis and ventricular enlargement have limited scope for recovery.
- Heart failure
- Reverse Takotsubo