ZnMn2O4 microtubules (ZMO-MTs) with a mesoporous structure are fabricated by a novel yet effective biomorphic approach employing cotton fiber as a biotemplate. The fabricated ZMO-MT has approximately an inner diameter of 8.5 μm and wall thickness of 1.5 μm. Further, the sample of ZMO-MT displays a large specific surface area of 48.5 m2 g-1. When evaluated as a negative material for Li-ion batteries, ZMO-MT demonstrates an improved cyclic performance with discharge capacities of 750.4 and 535.2 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles, under current densities of 200 and 500 mA g-1, respectively. Meanwhile, ZMO-MT exhibits superior rate performances with high reversible discharge capacities of 614.7 and 465.2 mA h g-1 under high rates of 1000 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively. In sodium ion batteries applications, ZMO-MT delivers excellent high discharge capacities of 102 and 71.4 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles under 100 and 200 mA g-1, respectively. An excellent rate capability of 58.2 mA h g-1 under the current density of 2000 mA g-1 can also be achieved. The promising cycling performance and rate capability could be benefited from the unique one-dimensional mesoporous microtubular architecture of ZMO-MT, which offers a large electrolyte/electrode accessible contact area and short diffusion distance for both of ions and electrons, buffering the volume variation originated from the repeated ion intercalation/deintercalation processes.
- lithium/sodium ion batteries