Menstrual fluid factors facilitate tissue repair: identification and functional action in endometrial and skin repair

Jemma Evans, Giuseppe Infusini, Jacqui McGovern, Leila Cuttle, Andrew Webb, Thomas Nebl, Liz Milla, Roy Kimble, Margit Kempf, Christine J. Andrews, David Leavesley, Lois A. Salamonsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Repair after damage is essential for tissue homeostasis. Postmenstrual endometrial repair is a cyclical manifestation of rapid, scar-free, tissue repair taking ∼3-5 d. Skin repair after wounding is slower (∼2 wk). In the case of chronic wounds, it takes months to years to restore integrity. Herein, the unique "rapid-repair" endometrial environment is translated to the "slower repair" skin environment. Menstrual fluid (MF), the milieu of postmenstrual endometrial repair, facilitates healing of endometrial and keratinocyte "wounds" in vitro, promoting cellular adhesion and migration, stimulates keratinocyte migration in an ex vivo human skin reconstruct model, and promotes re-epithelialization in an in vivo porcine wound model. Proteomic analysis of MF identified a large number of proteins: migration inhibitory factor, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, follistatin like-1, chemokine ligand-20, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor were selected for further investigation. Functionally, they promote repair of endometrial and keratinocyte wounds by promoting migration. Translation of these and other MF factors into a migration-inducing treatment paradigm could provide novel treatments for tissue repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)584-605
Number of pages22
JournalThe FASEB Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Menstruation
  • Migration
  • Proteomics

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