The understanding of lipid membranes and their organization has undergone significant development with better techniques and therefore more resolved experiments. Many new factors and organizing principles have been discovered, and interplay between these factors is expected to result in rich functional behaviours. The major factors regulating the lateral membrane heterogeneity, apart from the well-studied phase separation, are cytoskeleton pinning, clustering of lipids and curvature. These factors are effective means to create membrane domains that provide rich biological functionality. We review the recent advances and concepts of membrane heterogeneity organization by curvature, cytoskeleton and clustering proteins.
- Cytoskeletal pinning
- Phase transition