Aims: To examine the proportion of people with diabetes in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius meeting American Diabetes Association targets in 2009 and 2015. Methods: Data from independent population-based samples of 858 and 656 adults with diagnosed diabetes in 2009 and 2015, respectively, were analysed with regard to recommended American Diabetes Association targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Results: In 2015 compared with 2009, the proportion of people achieving American Diabetes Association targets for glycaemic control in Mauritius was higher in women (P≤0.01) and in those with only a primary education level (P=0.07), but not in men or people with a higher level of education. Achievement of blood pressure <140/90 mmHg was higher in 2015 compared with 2009 (60% vs 42%) in people of South Asian ethnicity (P<0.001), but not in those of African ethnicity (P=0.16). The percentages of people with LDL cholesterol <2.59 mmol/l were 42.1% and 50.4%, in 2009 and 2015, respectively (P=0.27). Better control of HbA1c and blood pressure was observed in groups in which that control was poorest in 2009. The use of glucose-, blood pressure- and LDL cholesterol-lowering medication was higher in 2015 than in 2009. Conclusions: In certain subgroups, namely women, those with poorer education and those of South Asian ethnicity, whose target achievement was the poorest in 2009, control of glycaemia and blood pressure was better in 2015 as compared with 2009. While these findings are encouraging, further work is required to improve outcomes.