The juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney is important in controlling extracellular fluid volume and renin release. The fluid load to the distal tubule is first sensed at the macula densa site via the entry of NaCl, through a Na, K, 2Cl co-transport mechanism. The next step is unclear, but there is recent evidence of an increased macula densa cell calcium concentration with a reduction in fluid load to the macula densa. An increase in macula densa cell calcium could activate phospholipase A2 to release arachidonic acid, the rate-limiting step in the formation of prostaglandins. Recent evidence suggests that the prostaglandin formed is PGE2, a potent stimulator for renin release. Recent evidence has also shown that adenosine has an important function in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. It stimulates calcium release in afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells, leading to contraction of the afferent arteriole as part of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, and inhibits renin release. Thus, renin release from the afferent arteriole is mediated partly through formation of PGE2, and partly through the reduction of adenosine formation that inhibits renin production.
|Pages (from-to)||471 - 474|
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Acta Physiologica Scandinavica|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|