Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

Nicola Anne Therese Hogan, Shane Christopher Costello, Malcolm James Boyle, Brett Anthony Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled Intrusion and Avoidance , as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287 - 294
Number of pages8
JournalPsychology Research and Behavior Management
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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