Measuring the use of inclusive practices among pre-service educators: a multi-national study

Umesh Sharma, Laura Sokal, Mian Wang, Tim Loreman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The inclusion of all learners in mainstream classrooms is an objective for schools internationally. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the newly developed Inclusive Practices Scale (IPS) to determine if the intention to use inclusive practices could be predicted from participants' attitudes and efficacy scores. Participants included 390 pre-service educators from four countries (Australia, India, Canada, and Hong Kong). Results suggest that the IPS is both a reliable and valid instrument, with teaching efficacy the strongest predictor of inclusive practice intentions. The IPS could be a meaningful tool in determining pre-service and in-service educators’ intentions to use inclusive practices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103506
Number of pages9
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Inclusive education
  • Teacher attitudes
  • Teacher education
  • Teacher efficacy

Cite this