Though HIV/AIDS poses serious risks to economic security, there is very little economics literature quantifying awareness and knowledge of this disease and their principal socioeconomic determinants. This is what the present study attempts to do in the context of India, which faces a significant threat from HIV/AIDS. The study is based on India s National Family Health Surveys covering the period of economic reforms and beyond. The contribution is both methodological and empirical. The study shows that the recent multi-dimensional deprivation approach to poverty can also be used to measure and analyse awareness and lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The use of decomposable multi-dimensional measures helps in identifying regions, socioeconomic groups and aspects of HIV knowledge that should be targeted in policy interventions. The study identifies the importance of safe sex practices as an area that needs to be targeted in future information campaigns. The study also explores the impact of increased female autonomy in health and economic decision-making on their and their partners knowledge of the disease, along with a host of other economic and demographic determinants.