Measuring Recovery After Ankle Fractures: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Scoring Systems

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Recovery after ankle fractures places a considerable burden on patients both short and long term. Numerous tools called patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed to measure the outcome of ankle fractures. They can assist clinicians to measure the effect, guide intervention, and assess the rate of recovery. We identified and evaluated the psychometric properties of PROMs used in the assessment of ankle fractures. In a systematic search, we examined 4 databases from inception to December 4, 2016. Search terms included ankle fracture, ankle pain, disability, gait, questionnaire, and PROMs. Reference lists were also examined. The inclusion criteria were English studies and adult populations. The psychometric properties of the identified PROMs were examined, including internal consistency, test–retest reliability, validity, floor–ceiling effects, and minimally important clinical differences. We identified 22 PROMs relating to ankle pain and disability. Only 5 were specifically used for ankle fractures. The 36-item short-form health survey and short musculoskeletal functional assessment reported floor–ceiling effects, and the lower extremity functional scale reported good responsiveness and content validity, although these are not tools specifically related to ankle fractures. The ankle-fracture outcome of rehabilitation measure (A-FORM) and the Olerud and Molander questionnaire were ankle fracture specific and assessed for internal consistency and validity. Clinicians should use the most appropriate PROM to evaluate patients’ recovery from ankle fractures. The A-FORM currently has the most appropriate evidence supporting its use as a PROM for ankle fracture management and rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-154
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • ankle
  • fracture
  • patient-reported outcome measure
  • psychometric

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