Measuring affective and motivational states as conditions for cognitive and metacognitive processing in self-regulated learning

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Even though the engagement in self-regulated learning (SRL) has been shown to boost academic performance, SRL skills of many learners remain underdeveloped. They often struggle to productively navigate multiple cognitive, affective, metacognitive and motivational (CAMM) processes in SRL. To provide learners with the required SRL support, it is essential to understand how learners enact CAMM processes as they study. More research is needed to advance the measurement of affective and motivational processes within SRL, and investigate how these processes influence learners' cognition and metacognition. With this in mind, we conducted a lab study involving 22 university students who worked on a 45-minute reading and writing task in digital learning environment. We used a wearable electroencephalogram device to record learner academic emotional and motivational states, and digital trace data to record learner cognitive and metacognitive processes. We harnessed time series prediction and explainable artificial intelligence methods to examine how learner's emotional and motivational states influence their choice of cognitive and metacognitive processes. Our results indicate that emotional and motivational states can predict learners' use of low cognitive, high cognitive and metacognitive processes with considerable classification accuracy (F1 > 0.73), and that higher values of interest, engagement and excitement promote cognitive processing.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLAK 2024 Conference Proceedings - The Fourteenth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge
EditorsSrecko Joksimovic, Andrew Zamecnik
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9798400716188
Publication statusPublished - 2024
EventInternational Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference 2024 - Kyoto, Japan
Duration: 18 Mar 202422 Mar 2024
Conference number: 14th (Conference Proceedings) (LAK 2024 Workshop Proceedings)


ConferenceInternational Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference 2024
Abbreviated titleLAK 2024
Internet address


  • electroencephalography
  • multi-modal learning analytics
  • self-regulated learning
  • time-series classification

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