A radioimmunoassay based on an antiserum to human parathyroid hormone-related protein PTHrP(1-16) was used with PTHrP(1-34) standard to measure the concentration of immunoreactive PTHrP in extracts of fetal parathyroid glands from lambs and calves and also placental membranes obtained from several species, including man. Dilution curves from these sources were parallel to those obtained for PTHrP(1-34) standard. It was demonstrated that this parallelism was not the result of tracer damage caused by enzymic activity in the tissue extracts. Extracts of human placental membranes were subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography with a linear acetonitrile gradient. Co-elution of cytochemical biological activity with 125I-labelled PTHrP(1-34) was noted. These results provide further evidence for both the fetal parathyroid glands and the placenta containing material resembling PTHrP which may be responsible for sustaining the activity of the placental calcium pump which maintains the fetus hypercalcaemic relative to its mother.