Measurement instruments for the anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety of robots

Christoph Bartneck, Dana Kulić, Elizabeth Croft, Susana Zoghbi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

1025 Citations (Scopus)


This study emphasizes the need for standardized measurement tools for human robot interaction (HRI). If we are to make progress in this field then we must be able to compare the results from different studies. A literature review has been performed on the measurements of five key concepts in HRI: anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety. The results have been distilled into five consistent questionnaires using semantic differential scales. We report reliability and validity indicators based on several empirical studies that used these questionnaires. It is our hope that these questionnaires can be used by robot developers to monitor their progress. Psychologists are invited to further develop the questionnaires by adding new concepts, and to conduct further validations where it appears necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-81
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Human factors
  • Measurement
  • Perception
  • Robot

Cite this