Measurement-based estimation of inertia in AC microgrids

Phurailatpam Chitaranjan Sharma, Zakir Rather, Behrooz Bahrani, Suryanarayana Doolla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an improved method to estimate the available inertia in an islanded AC microgrid. Inertia estimation is carried out based on measured frequency response for any arbitrary disturbance that occurs in the system. Modifications are made to the conventional swing equation-based curve-fitting method to obtain an accurate estimate for a system with high penetration of renewable generations. A polynomial curve fit over the total power generation is introduced to estimate the size of the disturbance accurately. Additionally, a variable order polynomial fit is carried out over the measured frequency, which not only improves the estimate of inertia but also helps to refrain the influence of network topology and size/location of the disturbance. The test microgrid system considered is a modified Standard IEEE distribution network, which consists of radial feeders and distributed generations. Firstly, the proposed method is tested on a system with only synchronous generations to assess the accuracy of the estimate. This is followed by the integration of Type 3 and Type 4 wind turbines, and a PV array within the microgrid system. Virtual inertia control is then implemented in the wind turbines to obtain inertial support. Estimation study of the microgrid system with virtual inertia is then carried out. The developed estimation method can accurately estimate the inertia provided by the synchronous sources within the generation mix. Finally, from all the results and observations, the inertia estimation process in a microgrid system is segregated into synchronous and nonsynchronous inertia estimation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8876680
Pages (from-to)1975-1984
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • Frequency stability
  • inertia estimation
  • microgrid
  • renewable sources
  • swing equation
  • virtual inertia

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